Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) generally consist of densely deployed sensor nodes that depend on batteries for energy. Having a large number of densely deployed sensor nodes causes energy waste and high redundancy in sensor data transmissions. The problems of power limitation and high redundancy in sensing coverage can be solved by appropriate scheduling of node activity among sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a cellular automata (CA)-based node scheduling algorithm for prolonging network lifetime with a balance of energy savings among nodes while achieving high coverage quality. Based on a CA framework, we propose a new mathematical model for the node scheduling algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses local interaction based on environmental state signaling for making scheduling decisions. We analyze the system behavior and derive steady states of the proposed system. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing protocols by providing energy balance with significant energy savings while maintaining sensing coverage quality.
Cellular automata; coverage; energy efficiency; node scheduling; wireless sensor networks